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Fig. 1 | Human Genomics

Fig. 1

From: AMD and the alternative complement pathway: genetics and functional implications

Fig. 1

Illustration of the anatomical retinal pathology associated with the various AMD subtypes. Diagram of the outer layers of the human central retina in normal and in AMD. As the disease progresses, Bruch’s membrane (BM) increases in thickness. Early AMD is associated with small drusen and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) pigment abnormalities. As the disease progresses to the intermediate form, additional drusen are observed. In the two late forms of AMD (Dry and Wet), there is extensive drusen and photoreceptor cell death, with atrophy of the RPE and choroid in the Dry form and choroidal neovascularization (CNV), hemorrhaging, and RPE detachment in the Wet form. In all forms, the underlying circuitry including the horizontal and bipolar cells remains intact initially. This figure was prepared using Servier Medical Art (

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