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Table 5 Empirical power results for gene-environment interaction effect assessment comparing ordinary statistical methods (OLR and OLMM) to family-based methods (AQTDTM, QBAT-I and ALMM) under homogeneous (HP) and stratified populations (SP). Each time, n cases were simulated with parameters β3 = α7 = 1. Simulations are based on the additive genetic model. † = number that identifies each model in the paper.

From: Gene-environment interaction tests for family studies with quantitative phenotypes: A review and extension to longitudinal measures

n H0 : β3 = 0 H0 : α7 = 0
  Two-step-models Mixed models
  OLR (21) † AQTDT M (22) QBAT-I OLMM (23) ALMM (24)
  HP SP HP SP HP SP HP SP HP SP
100 0.147 - 0.094 0.098 0.091 0.080 0.234 - 0.155 0.116
200 0.282 - 0.172 0.138 0.156 0.134 0.452 - 0.267 0.186
300 0.386 - 0.220 0.188 0.195 0.172 0.607 - 0.347 0.242
400 0.495 - 0.289 0.251 0.256 0.216 0.731 - 0.450 0.301
500 0.589 - 0.338 0.290 0.299 0.226 0.820 - 0.515 0.363
600 0.688 - 0.401 0.340 0.358 0.304 0.889 - 0.620 0.414
1000 0.875 - 0.604 0.503 0.561 0.465 0.978 - 0.794 0.618
  1. OLR, ordinary linear regression; OLMM, ordinary linear mixed model; ALMM, adjusted linear mixed model; AQTDTM, adjusted quantitative transmission disequilibrium test with mating type indicators