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Table 2 Diseases showing ancestry-phenotype correlation

From: Measuring and using admixture to study the genetics of complex diseases

Phenotype Population studied Association observed Test statistic reported Reference
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) Mexican Americans and Pima Indians Amerindian ancestry with NIDDM Kendall's τ = 0.848 ± 0.221, [p 8.1 × 105] [48]
NIDDM Mexican Americans Amerindian ancestry with NIDDM 0.943c (p < 0.001) [63]
1) Body mass index (BMI) Pima Indians European admixture with BMI, plasma glucose, 2-hour glucose 0.455b (95% CI: 0.301-0.688) [47]
2) Plasma glucose     
3) NIDDM     
NIDDM Mexican Americans Native American ancestry with NIDDM prevalence N/A [45]
Skin pigmentation (reflectrometry) 1) African Americans Melanin index versus % African ancestry 1) 0.21a, (p < 0.0001) [14]
  2) Afro-Caribbeans   2) 0.16a (p < 0.0001) * Mapped phenotype to two loci: TYR and OCA as candidates which influence normal pigmentation variation
  3) European Americans   3) 0.001a (p = NS)  
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Caribbeans (without Indian or Chinese ancestry) SLE and African Ancestry 28.4 [18]
    (95% CI: 1.7-485 after SES adjustmentb)  
Insulin-related phenotypes African American African admixture (ADM):   [20]
  Europeans    
  Americans    
1) Insulin sensitivity (SI),   1) with SI 1) (p < 0.001)a  
2) Fasting insulin (FA),   2) with FA 2) (p < 0.01)a  
3) Acute insulin response (AIR)   3) with AIR 3) (p < 0.001)a  
Oxygen capacity Quechua natives Positive: 0.8a [80]
   Spanish admixture with large VO2 at high altitudes   
Bone mineral density (BMD) Puerto Ricans from New York Positive: 0.065a (p = 0.042) [17]
   European admixture with lower BMD   
Skin pigmentation (Lightness index) Hispanics from the San Luis Valley, Colorado Positive: 0.0821a (p < 0.001) [17]
   Proportional European ancestry with increased Lightness   
  1. a = R2; b = risk ratio; c = rank-order correlation.